Textile material are all materials coming under the form of fibers of mineral, animal, vegetal or chemical nature that can be processed and transformed into yarns.
Wool types can be graded according to their origin or the end-use they are meant for according to their origin, wool types include:
Original wool types; coming from countries where sheep rearing is a fundamental resource, hence these are carefully selected high-quality wool types.
Indigenous wool types: these are wool types used within the producing country.
The so-called merinos wool types, named after the buck of the race that produce them, are the finest, even though climate and conditions affect them. They are relatively short but very twisted. Some long and large, straight and brilliant wool types are known as English wool types.
Artificial fibres are composed of materials that already exist in nature ( cellouse, casein, etc., ) opportunely treated by means of chemical and mechanical proceses, after which they are regenerated under the form of fibers. Synthetic fibres are fibres resulting from chemical processes starting from materials other than the material of the final product.
Fibres are worked using different process both as regards the type of machinery used and process flow, depending upon fibre characteristics and length. Main processes are as follows:
Processing of cotton short fibres.
Processing of wool long fibres
Processing of wool long-staple fibres
Some vegetal fibres, such as ramie, flax tows and hemp are worked with processing systems that can be assimilated to wool processing with appropriate variations.
Combing is done using specific machinery that repeatedly extract fibre tufts from the feed mass,pass the tufts through special combs and put together again a continuous worsted sliver. Fibres in the card sliver still present entagles and a considerable amount of impurities, with many short fibres which would hinder spinning fitness and therefore, should be eliminated. Main combing objectives are:
Main effects consequential to draft are the following:
The draft gauge is the gap between the last fibre taking point by the control mechanism and the roller pinching point with the draft cylinder.
Main fibre spinning fitness characteristics are medium fineness and medium height with their distribution or variation factors (CV%) visual aspect, touch and – last but not least – loft.
In the industrial practice, the fibres and yarns are graded using counting systems proportional to the length and weight of pre-established sampling items.
Chemical fibre, cotton and silk count is expressed in denier(ex. 3 den) or deci tex (3.3dtex), these being systems directly proportional to the sample weight and inversely proportional to their length.
The higher the count, the larger the fibres or yarns.
Wool count is expressed using the English count (ex. 64s) or metric count (Nm), these being systems inversely proportional to weight and directly proportional to length. The higher the count, the finer the fibres or yarns.